1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
use std::fmt;
use std::borrow::Cow;

use crate::http::{uri, Method, MediaType};
use crate::route::{Handler, RouteUri, BoxFuture};
use crate::sentinel::Sentry;

/// A request handling route.
///
/// A route consists of exactly the information in its fields. While a `Route`
/// can be instantiated directly, doing so should be a rare or nonexistent
/// event. Instead, a Rocket application should use Rocket's
/// [`#[route]`](macro@crate::route) series of attributes to generate a `Route`.
///
/// ```rust
/// # #[macro_use] extern crate rocket;
/// # use std::path::PathBuf;
/// #[get("/route/<path..>?query", rank = 2, format = "json")]
/// fn route_name(path: PathBuf) { /* handler procedure */ }
///
/// use rocket::http::{Method, MediaType};
///
/// let route = routes![route_name].remove(0);
/// assert_eq!(route.name.unwrap(), "route_name");
/// assert_eq!(route.method, Method::Get);
/// assert_eq!(route.uri, "/route/<path..>?query");
/// assert_eq!(route.rank, 2);
/// assert_eq!(route.format.unwrap(), MediaType::JSON);
/// ```
///
/// Note that the `rank` and `format` attribute parameters are optional. See
/// [`#[route]`](macro@crate::route) for details on macro usage. Note also that
/// a route's mounted _base_ becomes part of its URI; see [`RouteUri`] for
/// details.
///
/// # Routing
///
/// A request is _routed_ to a route if it has the highest precedence (lowest
/// rank) among all routes that [match](Route::matches()) the request. See
/// [`Route::matches()`] for details on what it means for a request to match.
///
/// Note that a single request _may_ be routed to multiple routes if a route
/// forwards. If a route fails, the request is instead routed to the highest
/// precedence [`Catcher`](crate::Catcher).
///
/// ## Collisions
///
/// Two routes are said to [collide](Route::collides_with()) if there exists a
/// request that matches both routes. Colliding routes present a routing
/// ambiguity and are thus disallowed by Rocket. Because routes can be
/// constructed dynamically, collision checking is done at
/// [`ignite`](crate::Rocket::ignite()) time, after it becomes statically
/// impossible to add any more routes to an instance of `Rocket`.
///
/// Note that because query parsing is always lenient -- extra and missing query
/// parameters are allowed -- queries do not directly impact whether two routes
/// collide.
///
/// ## Resolving Collisions
///
/// Collisions are resolved through _ranking_. Routes with lower ranks have
/// higher precedence during routing than routes with higher ranks. Thus, routes
/// are attempted in ascending rank order. If a higher precedence route returns
/// an `Outcome` of `Forward`, the next highest precedence route is attempted,
/// and so on, until a route returns `Success` or `Error`, or there are no
/// more routes to try. When all routes have been attempted, Rocket issues a
/// `404` error, handled by the appropriate [`Catcher`](crate::Catcher).
///
/// ## Default Ranking
///
/// Most collisions are automatically resolved by Rocket's _default rank_. The
/// default rank prefers static components over dynamic components in both paths
/// and queries: the _more_ static a route's path and query are, the lower its
/// rank and thus the higher its precedence.
///
/// There are three "colors" to paths and queries:
///   1. `static` - all components are static
///   2. `partial` - at least one, but not all, components are dynamic
///   3. `wild` - all components are dynamic
///
/// Static paths carry more weight than static queries. The same is true for
/// partial and wild paths. This results in the following default ranking
/// table:
///
/// | path    | query   | rank |
/// |---------|---------|------|
/// | static  | static  | -12  |
/// | static  | partial | -11  |
/// | static  | wild    | -10  |
/// | static  | none    | -9   |
/// | partial | static  | -8   |
/// | partial | partial | -7   |
/// | partial | wild    | -6   |
/// | partial | none    | -5   |
/// | wild    | static  | -4   |
/// | wild    | partial | -3   |
/// | wild    | wild    | -2   |
/// | wild    | none    | -1   |
///
/// Recall that _lower_ ranks have _higher_ precedence.
///
/// ### Example
///
/// ```rust
/// use rocket::Route;
/// use rocket::http::Method;
///
/// macro_rules! assert_rank {
///     ($($uri:expr => $rank:expr,)*) => {$(
///         let route = Route::new(Method::Get, $uri, rocket::route::dummy_handler);
///         assert_eq!(route.rank, $rank);
///     )*}
/// }
///
/// assert_rank! {
///     "/?foo" => -12,                 // static path, static query
///     "/foo/bar?a=b&bob" => -12,      // static path, static query
///     "/?a=b&bob" => -12,             // static path, static query
///
///     "/?a&<zoo..>" => -11,           // static path, partial query
///     "/foo?a&<zoo..>" => -11,        // static path, partial query
///     "/?a&<zoo>" => -11,             // static path, partial query
///
///     "/?<zoo..>" => -10,             // static path, wild query
///     "/foo?<zoo..>" => -10,          // static path, wild query
///     "/foo?<a>&<b>" => -10,          // static path, wild query
///
///     "/" => -9,                      // static path, no query
///     "/foo/bar" => -9,               // static path, no query
///
///     "/a/<b>?foo" => -8,             // partial path, static query
///     "/a/<b..>?foo" => -8,           // partial path, static query
///     "/<a>/b?foo" => -8,             // partial path, static query
///
///     "/a/<b>?<b>&c" => -7,           // partial path, partial query
///     "/a/<b..>?a&<c..>" => -7,       // partial path, partial query
///
///     "/a/<b>?<c..>" => -6,           // partial path, wild query
///     "/a/<b..>?<c>&<d>" => -6,       // partial path, wild query
///     "/a/<b..>?<c>" => -6,           // partial path, wild query
///
///     "/a/<b>" => -5,                 // partial path, no query
///     "/<a>/b" => -5,                 // partial path, no query
///     "/a/<b..>" => -5,               // partial path, no query
///
///     "/<b>/<c>?foo&bar" => -4,       // wild path, static query
///     "/<a>/<b..>?foo" => -4,         // wild path, static query
///     "/<b..>?cat" => -4,             // wild path, static query
///
///     "/<b>/<c>?<foo>&bar" => -3,     // wild path, partial query
///     "/<a>/<b..>?a&<b..>" => -3,     // wild path, partial query
///     "/<b..>?cat&<dog>" => -3,       // wild path, partial query
///
///     "/<b>/<c>?<foo>" => -2,         // wild path, wild query
///     "/<a>/<b..>?<b..>" => -2,       // wild path, wild query
///     "/<b..>?<c>&<dog>" => -2,       // wild path, wild query
///
///     "/<b>/<c>" => -1,               // wild path, no query
///     "/<a>/<b..>" => -1,             // wild path, no query
///     "/<b..>" => -1,                 // wild path, no query
/// }
/// ```
#[derive(Clone)]
pub struct Route {
    /// The name of this route, if one was given.
    pub name: Option<Cow<'static, str>>,
    /// The method this route matches against.
    pub method: Method,
    /// The function that should be called when the route matches.
    pub handler: Box<dyn Handler>,
    /// The route URI.
    pub uri: RouteUri<'static>,
    /// The rank of this route. Lower ranks have higher priorities.
    pub rank: isize,
    /// The media type this route matches against, if any.
    pub format: Option<MediaType>,
    /// The discovered sentinels.
    pub(crate) sentinels: Vec<Sentry>,
    /// The file, line, and column where the route was defined, if known.
    pub(crate) location: Option<(&'static str, u32, u32)>,
}

impl Route {
    /// Creates a new route with the given method, path, and handler with a base
    /// of `/` and a computed [default rank](#default-ranking).
    ///
    /// # Panics
    ///
    /// Panics if `path` is not a valid Rocket route URI.
    ///
    /// A valid route URI is any valid [`Origin`](uri::Origin) URI that is
    /// normalized, that is, does not contain any empty segments except for an
    /// optional trailing slash. Unlike a strict `Origin`, route URIs are also
    /// allowed to contain any UTF-8 characters.
    ///
    /// # Example
    ///
    /// ```rust
    /// use rocket::Route;
    /// use rocket::http::Method;
    /// # use rocket::route::dummy_handler as handler;
    ///
    /// // this is a route matching requests to `GET /`
    /// let index = Route::new(Method::Get, "/", handler);
    /// assert_eq!(index.rank, -9);
    /// assert_eq!(index.method, Method::Get);
    /// assert_eq!(index.uri, "/");
    /// ```
    #[track_caller]
    pub fn new<H: Handler>(method: Method, uri: &str, handler: H) -> Route {
        Route::ranked(None, method, uri, handler)
    }

    /// Creates a new route with the given rank, method, path, and handler with
    /// a base of `/`. If `rank` is `None`, the computed [default
    /// rank](#default-ranking) is used.
    ///
    /// # Panics
    ///
    /// Panics if `path` is not a valid Rocket route URI.
    ///
    /// A valid route URI is any valid [`Origin`](uri::Origin) URI that is
    /// normalized, that is, does not contain any empty segments except for an
    /// optional trailing slash. Unlike a strict `Origin`, route URIs are also
    /// allowed to contain any UTF-8 characters.
    ///
    /// # Example
    ///
    /// ```rust
    /// use rocket::Route;
    /// use rocket::http::Method;
    /// # use rocket::route::dummy_handler as handler;
    ///
    /// let foo = Route::ranked(1, Method::Post, "/foo?bar", handler);
    /// assert_eq!(foo.rank, 1);
    /// assert_eq!(foo.method, Method::Post);
    /// assert_eq!(foo.uri, "/foo?bar");
    ///
    /// let foo = Route::ranked(None, Method::Post, "/foo?bar", handler);
    /// assert_eq!(foo.rank, -12);
    /// assert_eq!(foo.method, Method::Post);
    /// assert_eq!(foo.uri, "/foo?bar");
    /// ```
    #[track_caller]
    pub fn ranked<H, R>(rank: R, method: Method, uri: &str, handler: H) -> Route
        where H: Handler + 'static, R: Into<Option<isize>>,
    {
        let uri = RouteUri::new("/", uri);
        let rank = rank.into().unwrap_or_else(|| uri.default_rank());
        Route {
            name: None,
            format: None,
            sentinels: Vec::new(),
            handler: Box::new(handler),
            location: None,
            rank, uri, method,
        }
    }

    /// Prefix `base` to any existing mount point base in `self`.
    ///
    /// If the the current mount point base is `/`, then the base is replaced by
    /// `base`. Otherwise, `base` is prefixed to the existing `base`.
    ///
    /// ```rust
    /// use rocket::Route;
    /// use rocket::http::Method;
    /// # use rocket::route::dummy_handler as handler;
    /// # use rocket::uri;
    ///
    /// // The default base is `/`.
    /// let index = Route::new(Method::Get, "/foo/bar", handler);
    ///
    /// // Since the base is `/`, rebasing replaces the base.
    /// let rebased = index.rebase(uri!("/boo"));
    /// assert_eq!(rebased.uri.base(), "/boo");
    ///
    /// // Now every rebase prefixes.
    /// let rebased = rebased.rebase(uri!("/base"));
    /// assert_eq!(rebased.uri.base(), "/base/boo");
    ///
    /// // Rebasing to `/` does nothing.
    /// let rebased = rebased.rebase(uri!("/"));
    /// assert_eq!(rebased.uri.base(), "/base/boo");
    ///
    /// // Note that trailing slashes are preserved:
    /// let index = Route::new(Method::Get, "/foo", handler);
    /// let rebased = index.rebase(uri!("/boo/"));
    /// assert_eq!(rebased.uri.base(), "/boo/");
    /// ```
    pub fn rebase(mut self, base: uri::Origin<'_>) -> Self {
        let new_base = match self.uri.base().as_str() {
            "/" => base.path().to_string(),
            _ => format!("{}{}", base.path(), self.uri.base()),
        };

        self.uri = RouteUri::new(&new_base, &self.uri.unmounted_origin.to_string());
        self
    }

    /// Maps the `base` of this route using `mapper`, returning a new `Route`
    /// with the returned base.
    ///
    /// **Note:** Prefer to use [`Route::rebase()`] whenever possible!
    ///
    /// `mapper` is called with the current base. The returned `String` is used
    /// as the new base if it is a valid URI. If the returned base URI contains
    /// a query, it is ignored. Returns an error if the base produced by
    /// `mapper` is not a valid origin URI.
    ///
    /// # Example
    ///
    /// ```rust
    /// use rocket::Route;
    /// use rocket::http::Method;
    /// # use rocket::route::dummy_handler as handler;
    /// # use rocket::uri;
    ///
    /// let index = Route::new(Method::Get, "/foo/bar", handler);
    /// assert_eq!(index.uri.base(), "/");
    /// assert_eq!(index.uri.unmounted().path(), "/foo/bar");
    /// assert_eq!(index.uri.path(), "/foo/bar");
    ///
    /// # let old_index = index;
    /// # let index = old_index.clone();
    /// let mapped = index.map_base(|base| format!("{}{}", "/boo", base)).unwrap();
    /// assert_eq!(mapped.uri.base(), "/boo/");
    /// assert_eq!(mapped.uri.unmounted().path(), "/foo/bar");
    /// assert_eq!(mapped.uri.path(), "/boo/foo/bar");
    ///
    /// // Note that this produces different `base` results than `rebase`!
    /// # let index = old_index.clone();
    /// let rebased = index.rebase(uri!("/boo"));
    /// assert_eq!(rebased.uri.base(), "/boo");
    /// assert_eq!(rebased.uri.unmounted().path(), "/foo/bar");
    /// assert_eq!(rebased.uri.path(), "/boo/foo/bar");
    /// ```
    pub fn map_base<'a, F>(mut self, mapper: F) -> Result<Self, uri::Error<'static>>
        where F: FnOnce(uri::Origin<'a>) -> String
    {
        let base = mapper(self.uri.base);
        self.uri = RouteUri::try_new(&base, &self.uri.unmounted_origin.to_string())?;
        Ok(self)
    }
}

impl fmt::Debug for Route {
    fn fmt(&self, f: &mut fmt::Formatter<'_>) -> fmt::Result {
        f.debug_struct("Route")
            .field("name", &self.name)
            .field("method", &self.method)
            .field("uri", &self.uri)
            .field("rank", &self.rank)
            .field("format", &self.format)
            .finish()
    }
}

/// Information generated by the `route` attribute during codegen.
#[doc(hidden)]
pub struct StaticInfo {
    /// The route's name, i.e, the name of the function.
    pub name: &'static str,
    /// The route's method.
    pub method: Method,
    /// The route's URi, without the base mount point.
    pub uri: &'static str,
    /// The route's format, if any.
    pub format: Option<MediaType>,
    /// The route's handler, i.e, the annotated function.
    pub handler: for<'r> fn(&'r crate::Request<'_>, crate::Data<'r>) -> BoxFuture<'r>,
    /// The route's rank, if any.
    pub rank: Option<isize>,
    /// Route-derived sentinels, if any.
    /// This isn't `&'static [SentryInfo]` because `type_name()` isn't `const`.
    pub sentinels: Vec<Sentry>,
    /// The file, line, and column where the route was defined.
    pub location: (&'static str, u32, u32),
}

#[doc(hidden)]
impl From<StaticInfo> for Route {
    fn from(info: StaticInfo) -> Route {
        // This should never panic since `info.path` is statically checked.
        let uri = RouteUri::new("/", info.uri);

        Route {
            name: Some(info.name.into()),
            method: info.method,
            handler: Box::new(info.handler),
            rank: info.rank.unwrap_or_else(|| uri.default_rank()),
            format: info.format,
            sentinels: info.sentinels.into_iter().collect(),
            location: Some(info.location),
            uri,
        }
    }
}