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pub struct HashSet<T, S = RandomState> { /* private fields */ }
Available on crate feature mtls only.
Expand description

A hash set implemented as a HashMap where the value is ().

As with the HashMap type, a HashSet requires that the elements implement the Eq and Hash traits. This can frequently be achieved by using #[derive(PartialEq, Eq, Hash)]. If you implement these yourself, it is important that the following property holds:

k1 == k2 -> hash(k1) == hash(k2)

In other words, if two keys are equal, their hashes must be equal.

It is a logic error for an item to be modified in such a way that the item’s hash, as determined by the Hash trait, or its equality, as determined by the Eq trait, changes while it is in the set. This is normally only possible through Cell, RefCell, global state, I/O, or unsafe code. The behavior resulting from such a logic error is not specified (it could include panics, incorrect results, aborts, memory leaks, or non-termination) but will not be undefined behavior.

Examples

use std::collections::HashSet;
// Type inference lets us omit an explicit type signature (which
// would be `HashSet<String>` in this example).
let mut books = HashSet::new();

// Add some books.
books.insert("A Dance With Dragons".to_string());
books.insert("To Kill a Mockingbird".to_string());
books.insert("The Odyssey".to_string());
books.insert("The Great Gatsby".to_string());

// Check for a specific one.
if !books.contains("The Winds of Winter") {
    println!("We have {} books, but The Winds of Winter ain't one.",
             books.len());
}

// Remove a book.
books.remove("The Odyssey");

// Iterate over everything.
for book in &books {
    println!("{book}");
}

The easiest way to use HashSet with a custom type is to derive Eq and Hash. We must also derive PartialEq, this will in the future be implied by Eq.

use std::collections::HashSet;
#[derive(Hash, Eq, PartialEq, Debug)]
struct Viking {
    name: String,
    power: usize,
}

let mut vikings = HashSet::new();

vikings.insert(Viking { name: "Einar".to_string(), power: 9 });
vikings.insert(Viking { name: "Einar".to_string(), power: 9 });
vikings.insert(Viking { name: "Olaf".to_string(), power: 4 });
vikings.insert(Viking { name: "Harald".to_string(), power: 8 });

// Use derived implementation to print the vikings.
for x in &vikings {
    println!("{x:?}");
}

A HashSet with a known list of items can be initialized from an array:

use std::collections::HashSet;

let viking_names = HashSet::from(["Einar", "Olaf", "Harald"]);

Implementations

Creates an empty HashSet.

The hash set is initially created with a capacity of 0, so it will not allocate until it is first inserted into.

Examples
use std::collections::HashSet;
let set: HashSet<i32> = HashSet::new();

Creates an empty HashSet with the specified capacity.

The hash set will be able to hold at least capacity elements without reallocating. If capacity is 0, the hash set will not allocate.

Examples
use std::collections::HashSet;
let set: HashSet<i32> = HashSet::with_capacity(10);
assert!(set.capacity() >= 10);

Returns the number of elements the set can hold without reallocating.

Examples
use std::collections::HashSet;
let set: HashSet<i32> = HashSet::with_capacity(100);
assert!(set.capacity() >= 100);

An iterator visiting all elements in arbitrary order. The iterator element type is &'a T.

Examples
use std::collections::HashSet;
let mut set = HashSet::new();
set.insert("a");
set.insert("b");

// Will print in an arbitrary order.
for x in set.iter() {
    println!("{x}");
}

Returns the number of elements in the set.

Examples
use std::collections::HashSet;

let mut v = HashSet::new();
assert_eq!(v.len(), 0);
v.insert(1);
assert_eq!(v.len(), 1);

Returns true if the set contains no elements.

Examples
use std::collections::HashSet;

let mut v = HashSet::new();
assert!(v.is_empty());
v.insert(1);
assert!(!v.is_empty());

Clears the set, returning all elements as an iterator. Keeps the allocated memory for reuse.

If the returned iterator is dropped before being fully consumed, it drops the remaining elements. The returned iterator keeps a mutable borrow on the vector to optimize its implementation.

Examples
use std::collections::HashSet;

let mut set = HashSet::from([1, 2, 3]);
assert!(!set.is_empty());

// print 1, 2, 3 in an arbitrary order
for i in set.drain() {
    println!("{i}");
}

assert!(set.is_empty());
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (hash_drain_filter)

Creates an iterator which uses a closure to determine if a value should be removed.

If the closure returns true, then the value is removed and yielded. If the closure returns false, the value will remain in the list and will not be yielded by the iterator.

If the iterator is only partially consumed or not consumed at all, each of the remaining values will still be subjected to the closure and removed and dropped if it returns true.

It is unspecified how many more values will be subjected to the closure if a panic occurs in the closure, or if a panic occurs while dropping a value, or if the DrainFilter itself is leaked.

Examples

Splitting a set into even and odd values, reusing the original set:

#![feature(hash_drain_filter)]
use std::collections::HashSet;

let mut set: HashSet<i32> = (0..8).collect();
let drained: HashSet<i32> = set.drain_filter(|v| v % 2 == 0).collect();

let mut evens = drained.into_iter().collect::<Vec<_>>();
let mut odds = set.into_iter().collect::<Vec<_>>();
evens.sort();
odds.sort();

assert_eq!(evens, vec![0, 2, 4, 6]);
assert_eq!(odds, vec![1, 3, 5, 7]);

Retains only the elements specified by the predicate.

In other words, remove all elements e for which f(&e) returns false. The elements are visited in unsorted (and unspecified) order.

Examples
use std::collections::HashSet;

let mut set = HashSet::from([1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]);
set.retain(|&k| k % 2 == 0);
assert_eq!(set.len(), 3);

Clears the set, removing all values.

Examples
use std::collections::HashSet;

let mut v = HashSet::new();
v.insert(1);
v.clear();
assert!(v.is_empty());

Creates a new empty hash set which will use the given hasher to hash keys.

The hash set is also created with the default initial capacity.

Warning: hasher is normally randomly generated, and is designed to allow HashSets to be resistant to attacks that cause many collisions and very poor performance. Setting it manually using this function can expose a DoS attack vector.

The hash_builder passed should implement the BuildHasher trait for the HashMap to be useful, see its documentation for details.

Examples
use std::collections::HashSet;
use std::collections::hash_map::RandomState;

let s = RandomState::new();
let mut set = HashSet::with_hasher(s);
set.insert(2);

Creates an empty HashSet with the specified capacity, using hasher to hash the keys.

The hash set will be able to hold at least capacity elements without reallocating. If capacity is 0, the hash set will not allocate.

Warning: hasher is normally randomly generated, and is designed to allow HashSets to be resistant to attacks that cause many collisions and very poor performance. Setting it manually using this function can expose a DoS attack vector.

The hash_builder passed should implement the BuildHasher trait for the HashMap to be useful, see its documentation for details.

Examples
use std::collections::HashSet;
use std::collections::hash_map::RandomState;

let s = RandomState::new();
let mut set = HashSet::with_capacity_and_hasher(10, s);
set.insert(1);

Returns a reference to the set’s BuildHasher.

Examples
use std::collections::HashSet;
use std::collections::hash_map::RandomState;

let hasher = RandomState::new();
let set: HashSet<i32> = HashSet::with_hasher(hasher);
let hasher: &RandomState = set.hasher();

Reserves capacity for at least additional more elements to be inserted in the HashSet. The collection may reserve more space to avoid frequent reallocations.

Panics

Panics if the new allocation size overflows usize.

Examples
use std::collections::HashSet;
let mut set: HashSet<i32> = HashSet::new();
set.reserve(10);
assert!(set.capacity() >= 10);

Tries to reserve capacity for at least additional more elements to be inserted in the given HashSet<K, V>. The collection may reserve more space to avoid frequent reallocations.

Errors

If the capacity overflows, or the allocator reports a failure, then an error is returned.

Examples
use std::collections::HashSet;
let mut set: HashSet<i32> = HashSet::new();
set.try_reserve(10).expect("why is the test harness OOMing on 10 bytes?");

Shrinks the capacity of the set as much as possible. It will drop down as much as possible while maintaining the internal rules and possibly leaving some space in accordance with the resize policy.

Examples
use std::collections::HashSet;

let mut set = HashSet::with_capacity(100);
set.insert(1);
set.insert(2);
assert!(set.capacity() >= 100);
set.shrink_to_fit();
assert!(set.capacity() >= 2);

Shrinks the capacity of the set with a lower limit. It will drop down no lower than the supplied limit while maintaining the internal rules and possibly leaving some space in accordance with the resize policy.

If the current capacity is less than the lower limit, this is a no-op.

Examples
use std::collections::HashSet;

let mut set = HashSet::with_capacity(100);
set.insert(1);
set.insert(2);
assert!(set.capacity() >= 100);
set.shrink_to(10);
assert!(set.capacity() >= 10);
set.shrink_to(0);
assert!(set.capacity() >= 2);

Visits the values representing the difference, i.e., the values that are in self but not in other.

Examples
use std::collections::HashSet;
let a = HashSet::from([1, 2, 3]);
let b = HashSet::from([4, 2, 3, 4]);

// Can be seen as `a - b`.
for x in a.difference(&b) {
    println!("{x}"); // Print 1
}

let diff: HashSet<_> = a.difference(&b).collect();
assert_eq!(diff, [1].iter().collect());

// Note that difference is not symmetric,
// and `b - a` means something else:
let diff: HashSet<_> = b.difference(&a).collect();
assert_eq!(diff, [4].iter().collect());

Visits the values representing the symmetric difference, i.e., the values that are in self or in other but not in both.

Examples
use std::collections::HashSet;
let a = HashSet::from([1, 2, 3]);
let b = HashSet::from([4, 2, 3, 4]);

// Print 1, 4 in arbitrary order.
for x in a.symmetric_difference(&b) {
    println!("{x}");
}

let diff1: HashSet<_> = a.symmetric_difference(&b).collect();
let diff2: HashSet<_> = b.symmetric_difference(&a).collect();

assert_eq!(diff1, diff2);
assert_eq!(diff1, [1, 4].iter().collect());

Visits the values representing the intersection, i.e., the values that are both in self and other.

Examples
use std::collections::HashSet;
let a = HashSet::from([1, 2, 3]);
let b = HashSet::from([4, 2, 3, 4]);

// Print 2, 3 in arbitrary order.
for x in a.intersection(&b) {
    println!("{x}");
}

let intersection: HashSet<_> = a.intersection(&b).collect();
assert_eq!(intersection, [2, 3].iter().collect());

Visits the values representing the union, i.e., all the values in self or other, without duplicates.

Examples
use std::collections::HashSet;
let a = HashSet::from([1, 2, 3]);
let b = HashSet::from([4, 2, 3, 4]);

// Print 1, 2, 3, 4 in arbitrary order.
for x in a.union(&b) {
    println!("{x}");
}

let union: HashSet<_> = a.union(&b).collect();
assert_eq!(union, [1, 2, 3, 4].iter().collect());

Returns true if the set contains a value.

The value may be any borrowed form of the set’s value type, but Hash and Eq on the borrowed form must match those for the value type.

Examples
use std::collections::HashSet;

let set = HashSet::from([1, 2, 3]);
assert_eq!(set.contains(&1), true);
assert_eq!(set.contains(&4), false);

Returns a reference to the value in the set, if any, that is equal to the given value.

The value may be any borrowed form of the set’s value type, but Hash and Eq on the borrowed form must match those for the value type.

Examples
use std::collections::HashSet;

let set = HashSet::from([1, 2, 3]);
assert_eq!(set.get(&2), Some(&2));
assert_eq!(set.get(&4), None);
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (hash_set_entry)

Inserts the given value into the set if it is not present, then returns a reference to the value in the set.

Examples
#![feature(hash_set_entry)]

use std::collections::HashSet;

let mut set = HashSet::from([1, 2, 3]);
assert_eq!(set.len(), 3);
assert_eq!(set.get_or_insert(2), &2);
assert_eq!(set.get_or_insert(100), &100);
assert_eq!(set.len(), 4); // 100 was inserted
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (hash_set_entry)

Inserts an owned copy of the given value into the set if it is not present, then returns a reference to the value in the set.

Examples
#![feature(hash_set_entry)]

use std::collections::HashSet;

let mut set: HashSet<String> = ["cat", "dog", "horse"]
    .iter().map(|&pet| pet.to_owned()).collect();

assert_eq!(set.len(), 3);
for &pet in &["cat", "dog", "fish"] {
    let value = set.get_or_insert_owned(pet);
    assert_eq!(value, pet);
}
assert_eq!(set.len(), 4); // a new "fish" was inserted
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (hash_set_entry)

Inserts a value computed from f into the set if the given value is not present, then returns a reference to the value in the set.

Examples
#![feature(hash_set_entry)]

use std::collections::HashSet;

let mut set: HashSet<String> = ["cat", "dog", "horse"]
    .iter().map(|&pet| pet.to_owned()).collect();

assert_eq!(set.len(), 3);
for &pet in &["cat", "dog", "fish"] {
    let value = set.get_or_insert_with(pet, str::to_owned);
    assert_eq!(value, pet);
}
assert_eq!(set.len(), 4); // a new "fish" was inserted

Returns true if self has no elements in common with other. This is equivalent to checking for an empty intersection.

Examples
use std::collections::HashSet;

let a = HashSet::from([1, 2, 3]);
let mut b = HashSet::new();

assert_eq!(a.is_disjoint(&b), true);
b.insert(4);
assert_eq!(a.is_disjoint(&b), true);
b.insert(1);
assert_eq!(a.is_disjoint(&b), false);

Returns true if the set is a subset of another, i.e., other contains at least all the values in self.

Examples
use std::collections::HashSet;

let sup = HashSet::from([1, 2, 3]);
let mut set = HashSet::new();

assert_eq!(set.is_subset(&sup), true);
set.insert(2);
assert_eq!(set.is_subset(&sup), true);
set.insert(4);
assert_eq!(set.is_subset(&sup), false);

Returns true if the set is a superset of another, i.e., self contains at least all the values in other.

Examples
use std::collections::HashSet;

let sub = HashSet::from([1, 2]);
let mut set = HashSet::new();

assert_eq!(set.is_superset(&sub), false);

set.insert(0);
set.insert(1);
assert_eq!(set.is_superset(&sub), false);

set.insert(2);
assert_eq!(set.is_superset(&sub), true);

Adds a value to the set.

If the set did not have this value present, true is returned.

If the set did have this value present, false is returned.

Examples
use std::collections::HashSet;

let mut set = HashSet::new();

assert_eq!(set.insert(2), true);
assert_eq!(set.insert(2), false);
assert_eq!(set.len(), 1);

Adds a value to the set, replacing the existing value, if any, that is equal to the given one. Returns the replaced value.

Examples
use std::collections::HashSet;

let mut set = HashSet::new();
set.insert(Vec::<i32>::new());

assert_eq!(set.get(&[][..]).unwrap().capacity(), 0);
set.replace(Vec::with_capacity(10));
assert_eq!(set.get(&[][..]).unwrap().capacity(), 10);

Removes a value from the set. Returns whether the value was present in the set.

The value may be any borrowed form of the set’s value type, but Hash and Eq on the borrowed form must match those for the value type.

Examples
use std::collections::HashSet;

let mut set = HashSet::new();

set.insert(2);
assert_eq!(set.remove(&2), true);
assert_eq!(set.remove(&2), false);

Removes and returns the value in the set, if any, that is equal to the given one.

The value may be any borrowed form of the set’s value type, but Hash and Eq on the borrowed form must match those for the value type.

Examples
use std::collections::HashSet;

let mut set = HashSet::from([1, 2, 3]);
assert_eq!(set.take(&2), Some(2));
assert_eq!(set.take(&2), None);

Trait Implementations

Returns the intersection of self and rhs as a new HashSet<T, S>.

Examples
use std::collections::HashSet;

let a = HashSet::from([1, 2, 3]);
let b = HashSet::from([2, 3, 4]);

let set = &a & &b;

let mut i = 0;
let expected = [2, 3];
for x in &set {
    assert!(expected.contains(x));
    i += 1;
}
assert_eq!(i, expected.len());

The resulting type after applying the & operator.

Returns the union of self and rhs as a new HashSet<T, S>.

Examples
use std::collections::HashSet;

let a = HashSet::from([1, 2, 3]);
let b = HashSet::from([3, 4, 5]);

let set = &a | &b;

let mut i = 0;
let expected = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];
for x in &set {
    assert!(expected.contains(x));
    i += 1;
}
assert_eq!(i, expected.len());

The resulting type after applying the | operator.

Returns the symmetric difference of self and rhs as a new HashSet<T, S>.

Examples
use std::collections::HashSet;

let a = HashSet::from([1, 2, 3]);
let b = HashSet::from([3, 4, 5]);

let set = &a ^ &b;

let mut i = 0;
let expected = [1, 2, 4, 5];
for x in &set {
    assert!(expected.contains(x));
    i += 1;
}
assert_eq!(i, expected.len());

The resulting type after applying the ^ operator.

Returns a copy of the value. Read more

Performs copy-assignment from source. Read more

Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more

Creates an empty HashSet<T, S> with the Default value for the hasher.

Deserialize this value from the given Serde deserializer. Read more

Extends a collection with the contents of an iterator. Read more

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (extend_one)

Extends a collection with exactly one element.

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (extend_one)

Reserves capacity in a collection for the given number of additional elements. Read more

Extends a collection with the contents of an iterator. Read more

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (extend_one)

Extends a collection with exactly one element.

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (extend_one)

Reserves capacity in a collection for the given number of additional elements. Read more

Examples
use std::collections::HashSet;

let set1 = HashSet::from([1, 2, 3, 4]);
let set2: HashSet<_> = [1, 2, 3, 4].into();
assert_eq!(set1, set2);

Converts to this type from the input type.

Creates a value from an iterator. Read more

Converts this type into the (usually inferred) input type.

The type of the deserializer being converted into.

Convert this value into a deserializer.

The type of the elements being iterated over.

Which kind of iterator are we turning this into?

Creates an iterator from a value. Read more

Creates a consuming iterator, that is, one that moves each value out of the set in arbitrary order. The set cannot be used after calling this.

Examples
use std::collections::HashSet;
let mut set = HashSet::new();
set.insert("a".to_string());
set.insert("b".to_string());

// Not possible to collect to a Vec<String> with a regular `.iter()`.
let v: Vec<String> = set.into_iter().collect();

// Will print in an arbitrary order.
for x in &v {
    println!("{x}");
}

The type of the elements being iterated over.

Which kind of iterator are we turning this into?

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==. Read more

This method tests for !=.

Serialize this value into the given Serde serializer. Read more

Returns the difference of self and rhs as a new HashSet<T, S>.

Examples
use std::collections::HashSet;

let a = HashSet::from([1, 2, 3]);
let b = HashSet::from([3, 4, 5]);

let set = &a - &b;

let mut i = 0;
let expected = [1, 2];
for x in &set {
    assert!(expected.contains(x));
    i += 1;
}
assert_eq!(i, expected.len());

The resulting type after applying the - operator.

Get the length of the object, when encoded Read more

Attempt to write the DER header to this writer.

Attempt to write the DER content (all except header) to this writer.

Write the DER encoded representation to a newly allocated Vec<u8>.

Similar to using to_vec, but uses provided values without changes. This can generate an invalid encoding for a DER object. Read more

Attempt to write the DER encoded representation (header and content) into this writer. Read more

Similar to using to_der, but uses provided values without changes. This can generate an invalid encoding for a DER object. Read more

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

Performs the conversion.

Auto Trait Implementations

Blanket Implementations

Gets the TypeId of self. Read more

Immutably borrows from an owned value. Read more

Mutably borrows from an owned value. Read more

Is the provided Tag decodable as a variant of this CHOICE?

Compare self to key and return true if they are equal.

Returns the argument unchanged.

Attempt to parse input bytes into a BER object

Attempt to parse input bytes into a DER object (enforcing constraints)

Instruments this type with the provided Span, returning an Instrumented wrapper. Read more

Instruments this type with the current Span, returning an Instrumented wrapper. Read more

Calls U::from(self).

That is, this conversion is whatever the implementation of From<T> for U chooses to do.

Converts self into a collection.

Should always be Self

The resulting type after obtaining ownership.

Creates owned data from borrowed data, usually by cloning. Read more

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (toowned_clone_into)

Uses borrowed data to replace owned data, usually by cloning. Read more

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

Performs the conversion.

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

Performs the conversion.

Attaches the provided Subscriber to this type, returning a WithDispatch wrapper. Read more

Attaches the current default Subscriber to this type, returning a WithDispatch wrapper. Read more