[][src]Trait rocket::request::FromQuery

pub trait FromQuery<'q>: Sized {
    type Error;
    fn from_query(query: Query<'q>) -> Result<Self, Self::Error>;

Trait implemented by query guards to derive a value from a query string.

Query Guards

A query guard operates on multiple items of a request's query string. It validates and optionally converts a query string into another value. Validation and parsing/conversion is implemented through FromQuery. In other words, every type that implements FromQuery is a query guard.

Query guards are used as the target of trailing query parameters, which syntactically take the form <param..> after a ? in a route's path. For example, the parameter user is a trailing query parameter in the following route:

use rocket::request::Form;

struct User {
    name: String,
    account: usize,

fn item(id: usize, user: Form<User>) { /* ... */ }

The FromQuery implementation of Form<User> will be passed in a Query that iterates over all of the query items that don't have the key id (because of the <id> dynamic query parameter). For posterity, note that the value of an id=value item in a query string will be parsed as a usize and passed in to item as id.


If the conversion fails, signaled by returning an Err from a FromQuery implementation, the incoming request will be forwarded to the next matching route, if any. For instance, in the item route above, if a query string is missing either a name or account key/value pair, or there is a query item with a key that is not id, name, or account, the request will be forwarded. Note that this strictness is imposed by the Form type. As an example, using the LenientForm type instead would allow extra form items to be ignored without forwarding. Alternatively, not having a trailing parameter at all would result in the same.

Provided Implementations

Rocket implements FromQuery for several standard types. Their behavior is documented here.


Explicitly implementing FromQuery should be rare. For most use-cases, a query guard of Form<T> or LenientForm<T>, coupled with deriving FromForm (as in the previous example) will suffice. For special cases however, an implementation of FromQuery may be warranted.

Consider a contrived scheme where we expect to recieve one query key, key, three times and wish to take the middle value. For instance, consider the query:


We wish to extract second_value from this query into a Contrived struct. Because Form and LenientForm will take the last value (third_value here) and don't check that there are exactly three keys named key, we cannot make use of them and must implement FromQuery manually. Such an implementation might look like:

use rocket::http::RawStr;
use rocket::request::{Query, FromQuery};

/// Our custom query guard.
struct Contrived<'q>(&'q RawStr);

impl<'q> FromQuery<'q> for Contrived<'q> {
    /// The number of `key`s we actually saw.
    type Error = usize;

    fn from_query(query: Query<'q>) -> Result<Self, Self::Error> {
        let mut key_items = query.filter(|i| i.key == "key");

        // This is cloning an iterator, which is cheap.
        let count = key_items.clone().count();
        if count != 3 {
            return Err(count);

        // The `ok_or` gets us a `Result`. We will never see `Err(0)`.
        key_items.map(|i| Contrived(i.value)).nth(1).ok_or(0)

Associated Types

The associated error to be returned if parsing/validation fails.

Required Methods

Parses and validates an instance of Self from a query or returns an Error if parsing or validation fails.

Implementations on Foreign Types

impl<'q, T: FromQuery<'q>> FromQuery<'q> for Option<T>

impl<'q, T: FromQuery<'q>> FromQuery<'q> for Result<T, T::Error>


impl<'q, T: FromForm<'q>> FromQuery<'q> for Form<T>

impl<'q, T: FromForm<'q>> FromQuery<'q> for LenientForm<T>